Farm Security Administration
(Headquarters Offices: Thirteenth Street and Independence Avenue SW.,
Pursuant to the Emergency Relief -Appropriation Act, approved April 8, 1935 (49 Stat. 115), Executive Order 7027, of April 30, 1935, as amended, created the Resettlement Administration. That agency was transferred to the Department of Agriculture by Executive orderDEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE 3577530, of December 31, 1936, as amended, and its name was changed to the Farm Security Administration by Secretary's Memorandum 732, of September 1, 1937.
RURAL REHABILITATION.-Nearly one million farm families who lacked other sources of adequate credit have been aided by loans to purchase machinery, equipment, livestock, seed, feed, fertilizer, and other farm and home supplies they needed to make a living. Since the United States entered the war, loans have been made primarily to enable borrowers to increase production of essential food and fiber. They usually are repayable in 5 years at an interest rate of 5 percent. The loans are accompanied by technical guidance from county supervisors trained in farm and home management, who help the families carry out farm and home plans providing for increased production of essential crops and livestock, home conservation of food and feed, diversification of farm enterprises, and crop rotation and soil conservation practices.
Loans also are made to low-income farmers for the group purchase and use of farm machinery and purebred sires, which none can afford to own individually.
The Farm Security Administration aids borrower families to get medical and dental care by setting up county-wide group health services in cooperation with local physicians and dentists. County committees of local farmers are set up to determine the eligibility of applicants and to assist in all phases of the FSA program. In addition to other services, the committees bring FSA-tenant borrowers and landlords together to negotiate long-term written leases and also bring farmers and their creditors together to work out voluntary agreements for the adjustment of debts.
FARM OWNERSHIP LOANS.-Under Title I of the Bankhead-Jones Farm Tenant Act, July 29, 1937 (49 Stat. 436; 7 U. S. C. 343c-d, 427), the Farm Security Administration is authorized to make loans to a limited number of capable farm tenants, sharecroppers, and farm laborers to enable them to buy family-type farms of their own. Similar long-term loans enable farm owners to buy additional land necessary to build up family-type farms out of units that are too small. For the first 6 fiscal years of the program, ending June 30, 1943, Congress appropriated or authorized $203,500,000 for this purpose; for the fiscal year ending June, 1944, an additional $30,000, too, was authorized for farm ownership loans. These loans are made at 3 percent interest for periods not exceeding 40 years. Funds have been distributed among the States and Territories on the basis of farm population and prevalence of tenancy. Applicants must be citizens of the United States. By the end of the 1943 fiscal year 33,559 farmers had received loans for the purchase of family-type farms.
DAISY ANIMAL PURCHASES.-In areas where there are feed shortages, FSA supervisors acting as agents for the Commodity Credit Corporation, buy good dairy heifers that otherwise would be sold for slaughter. In order to save these animals for milk production, they are sold to farmers in areas where there is sufficient feed.
FARM LABOR SUPPLY CENTERS.-The 95 migratory labor camps established by FSA to provide shelter, medical care, and sanitary facilities for migrant families have been turned over to the Office of Labor.
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War Food Administration, for the use of seasonal agricultural workers who help harvest essential war crops.
LIQUIDATION OF RESETTLEMENT PROJECTS.-When the Farm Security Administration was created it assumed the management of the resettlement projects that had been started by preceding agencies. The projects were instituted to give groups of low-income farm families stranded on worn-out land an opportunity to make a new start on farms capable of producing an adequate living, and to develop better patterns of rural life. Forty-two non-farm projects were transferred to the National Housing Agency on October 1, 1942. The 152 farm projects are now being liquidated and the units are being sold to the residents. By July 1, 1943, more than half the 9,218 farm units had been sold.
WATER CONSERVATION AND UTILIZATION PROGRAM AND WATER FACILITIES PROGRAM.-The Farm Security Administration participates in a long-range water conservation and utilization program to develop large irrigation projects in the arid and semi-arid sections of the western States, and to resettle low-income farm families on the reclaimed land. Under the water facilities program the Farm Security Administration makes loans and supplies technical assistance to farmers in the 17 far western States for the construction of needed small water facilities.
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